Top 8 Selenium Framework Components

A web application is tested for hundreds of hours to guarantee it works both inside and outside the local development environment. Before you introduced Selenium, human testers ran hundreds of test case scenarios on all benchmarked browsers, recording what failed and determining the source of the failure. Selenium has decreased the amount of manual testing necessary dramatically.

As per the manual testing crew, an end-to-end system test could take anything from a few days to several weeks to complete. Today’s development methodologies can be completed in as little as two to four weeks, which is a significant time-saving. Predictable, repeatable testing with near-instant feedback is required to deploy new, bug-free versions in that time range. Selenium testing is now regarded as crucial in the development process.

What is Selenium?

Selenium is a free (open-source) automated UI testing framework that may be used on various browsers and systems to check web applications. Furthermore, you may develop Selenium Test Scripts across multiple programming languages, including Java, C#, Python, etc. Testing carried out with the Selenium testing tool is called Selenium testing.

Selenium Software is more than a single tool; it is a collection of software components tailored to a certain organization’s Selenium QA testing needs. This article discusses some of the top selenium frameworks and what selenium frameworks.

What are Selenium Frameworks?

The Selenium Framework is a prominent coding framework that makes code maintenance easier and more efficient. If no frameworks are utilized, users may store “code” and “data” in the same location, making the code and data neither reusable nor intelligible. Frameworks can have negative implications in addition to desired outcomes like better code reusability, portability, lower script maintenance costs, and improved code readability.

Types of Frameworks For Selenium Testing Based On Components

1. Linear Scripting Framework

The Linear Scripting Framework is a low-level test automation framework built as “Record and Playback” and runs linearly. This framework, often known as “Record and Playback,” is used to record and playback audio. This framework is intended to test apps that are small in size.

The preparation and execution of test scripts for each test case are done individually in this testing method. The testers record each test step, such as browsing, navigation, user inputs, and imposing checkpoints. The testers then listen to the scripts and utilize them to run the tests.

Some of the advantages of using the Linear Scripting Automation Framework are as follows:

  • It is possible to create test scripts (record and playback) without putting in a lot of effort ahead of time.
  • It is not necessary to know how to code.
  • A quick and easy way to generate test scripts

The following are some of the Linear Scripting Automation Framework’s drawbacks:

  • There is a lack of reusability due to auto-created scripts.
  • Because the data is hardcoded, we cannot run with multiple data sets.
  • Finally, maintenance is expensive; even simple alterations necessitate a large amount of effort.

2. Modular Testing Framework

Testers build test scripts module by module in the modular testing framework, breaking down the entire application under test into smaller, independent tests. Framework for Modular Testing:

In another way, the testers split the program into multiple sections and built test scripts for each module separately. Using a master script to create the desired settings in each case, combining these different test scripts to construct larger ones. This master script calls the individual modules to complete end-to-end test scenarios.

The main reason for utilizing this framework is to offer an abstraction layer that shields the master module from potentially harmful changes performed in individual tests. Testers use this framework to create function libraries that may be utilized. 

The benefits of utilizing a modular testing framework are as follows:

  • The entire software has been divided into separate components, making it more scalable and easier to maintain.
  • They can write their test scripts.
  • Changes to one module have little or no effect on the other modules.

The Modular Testing Framework has the following disadvantages:

  • First, examining test cases and identifying reusable methods takes longer than writing them.
  • Multiple data sets are not permitted because the test scripts contain hard-coded data.
  • The setup of the framework necessitates the use of coding abilities.

3. Library Architecture Testing Framework

The Library Architecture Evaluating Methodology, often known as “Structured Scripting” or “Functional Decomposition,” is a framework for testing library architecture. Because it is built on a modular foundation, it has several additional advantages.

We find common tasks in the functional testing framework and integrate them into functions, similar to splitting the program under test into modules in the modular testing framework. The groups will be saved in a library once the functions have been grouped. The test scripts then reuse these libraries to produce new test cases.

Some of the advantages of employing a Library Architecture Testing Framework are as follows:

  • The script’s maintenance is simple.
  • Scalability is quite simple.
  • You can use the functions library again and again.

The downsides of adopting a Library Architecture Testing Framework are as follows:

  • The ability to code is necessary.
  • Preparing the test script takes longer than normal.
  • A certain set of test data is hardcoded into the algorithms.

4. Data-Driven Framework

Separating the logic of test scripts from the data used in the tests is the goal of the data-driven test automation framework. It empowers us to create test automation scripts by providing the script generator with multiple test data sets.

External files or resources must be used to save the test data set, such as Microsoft Excel sheets, Microsoft Access tables (MS Access database), SQL database (SQL database), XML files, etc. The test scripts establish connections with various services to acquire test data. Using this framework, we could rapidly and easily make the test scripts operate for numerous types of test data. 

This type of framework significantly reduces the number of test scripts compared to the module-based architecture. This framework enables better test coverage while simultaneously giving more flexibility in the execution of tests by only changing the input test data when necessary, thanks to reusable tests.

Cloud-based automation testing platforms like LambdaTest also provide online Selenium Grid, which allows testers to run parallel tests across an extensive range of browsers and operating systems. It also supports parallel testing to accelerate test execution cycles and reduce feedback time by multiple folds.

It is trustworthy because it does not influence tests when the test data is updated, but it has its drawbacks, such as requiring testers working on this framework to have hands-on programming knowledge to create test scripts.

Some of the benefits of a data-driven framework are as follows:

  • It works with a wide range of data sets.
  • Hardcoding test data is unnecessary.
  • It allows you to run more tests in less time.

The following are the drawbacks of a data-driven framework:

  • The ability to code is necessary.
  • The configuration of the framework and test data will take more time.

5. Keyword Driven Testing Framework

The Keyword Driven Testing Framework (also known as table-driven testing or action word-based testing) is a type of testing framework that guides the testing process via keywords. Before executing keyword-driven testing, we utilize a table structure for declaring the keywords or action words for every function or method we want to test. It then runs automation test scripts and reports the results depending on the keywords in the excel sheet.

This framework allows testers without programming experience to work on test automation scripts by enabling them to design test automation scripts using keywords.

The code for reading keywords from an external excel sheet and performing the action specified in the sheet is contained in the main class. In the same way that keywords drive data-driven testing, keyword-driven testing is. Even though programming skills are not required to work on this framework, the first setup (putting the framework into operation) does.

Some of the benefits of keyword-driven frameworks are as follows:

  • First, you do not need to be an expert to create test scripts.
  • You can reuse the code in this case. We could, for example, use a variable to drive different scripts to the same Keyword.
  • Test scripts are unaffected by changes to the application.
  • You can construct tests before the application is developed.
  • Test scripts can be utilized independently of the application under test by making minor changes.
  • It does not rely on testing software.

Keyword-Driven Frameworks have the following disadvantages:

  • Because the initial cost will be high, the design will take longer.
  • Employees who are skilled in test automation are in high demand.

6. Hybrid Driven Testing Framework

Two or more of the following frameworks are integrated into a hybrid-driven testing framework. It’s a framework for test automation. It aims to leverage the strengths and benefits of other frameworks for the specific test environment it is responsible for. The bulk of teams in the current market is constructing this hybrid-driven structure.

7. Behavior Driven Development Testing Framework

This Behavior Driven Development Testing Framework aims to build a platform that allows everyone to actively participate (including Business Analysts, Developers, and Testers, among others). Customers are not required to know any programming languages. We use non-technical, everyday language to create test criteria. 

8. Hybrid Testing Framework

As its name implies, the Hybrid Testing Framework combines the frameworks discussed above. The best thing about this setup is that it uses all underlying frameworks. As a result, the Hybrid Driven Framework combines the Data-Driven Framework and the Keyword-Driven Framework. This requires an externalization of both the keywords and the test data. The test results are recorded in a Properties file or Excel spreadsheet, while the keywords are stored in a Java class file.


Among the many available test automation frameworks, we have used a few. Data-driven test automation, keyword-driven test automation, and hybrid test automation are the most common test automation frameworks. While working with the Data-Driven Framework, we maintain test data in excel sheets and utilize TestNG’s data provider to test cases on the data. In a keyword-driven framework, we construct keywords in an excel sheet, and the code will refer to this file to run the test cases provided in the spreadsheet.

The hybrid framework is a blend of data-driven and keyword-driven frameworks in terms of structure and functionality. Given the need for speedy and reliable testing that extends across several browsers and devices to assure compatibility, automation browser testing with Selenium appears to be the most viable solution. Furthermore, in terms of practicality, adaptability, and cost-effectiveness, the Selenium Framework, extensively used in the business, has benefits over other testing frameworks. This is a great way to provide a consistent end-user experience while adhering to the continuous delivery development methodology.

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