A pump which uses a centrifugal force to pump fluids from one area to other is known as a centrifugal pump. This pump transfers water by converting the mechanical power into pressure.
These types of pumps use rotation to transfer speed towards the liquid. Every centrifugal pump uses a hydraulic element as an impeller. This element rotates to transmit speed to the fluid being pumped.
Pumps are mainly used to convert velocity into fluid flow. Each pump uses hydraulic components such as the housing. This component senses the speed reported by the impeller and delivers the extruded fluid to the outlet end of the pump.
The centrifugal pump has two connections, an inlet and an outlet. The inlet always runs through the center, usually on the horizontal axis, and is called the suction line. This is called a drain line as long as the outlet is on the vertical axis.
The impeller must always be submerged in water. If you do not do this, you will not be able to operate normally with enough flow. Insufficient flow can lead to cavitation. The low pressure causes the water inside to boil, which can cause serious damage to the pump impeller.
A vortex is created around the pump housing. The diameter of the spiral is smallest from the beginning and increases up to the maximum diameter of the pressure port. This change in diameter allows more water to flow. That is, when the water accumulates, the mass flow increases.
Working of Centrifugal Pump
Firstly, the water enters the centrifugal pump through the water inlet. When water enters the impeller, its rotational force pushes it outward in a hot tub. The larger diameter vortices direct the flow of water towards the outlet.
The impeller has many curved blades that extend from the center to the outer edge. This impeller is known as the backward curved impeller and is the most common and effective flow design.
It is important to remember that these veins do not push the water like paddles, but rather the water flows between them and the veins are used for orientation.
As the impeller begins to spin, low pressure suction is created at the inlet.
This low-pressure suction draws the fluid into the center of the impeller.
Whenever you turn something, it always tries to move away from the center and away from the outer edge.
Imagine spinning a ball that is tied on a string. The ball moves outward and is held by the string. If the rope breaks, the ball will fly very far.
Types of Centrifugal Pumps
1) Condensate Pump
The condensate pump is a most common type of the centrifugal pump. This pump uses to pump condensate fluid from the condenser.
2) Single Stage Pump
The single stage pump is a single wheel pump and the construction and maintenance of this pump is very simple. These pumps are well suited for high flow and low-pressure devices. Single stage pumps are widely used for pumping applications such as high flow rates and low to medium total dynamic heads (TDH).
3) Two Stage Pump
A two-stage centrifugal pump can consist of two impellers working side by side. These pumps are mainly used in medium head applications.
4) Multistage Pump
Multi-stage pumps can consist of two or three impellers connected in series. These pumps are used for high lift work.
Advantages of Centrifugal Pumps
- The centrifugal pump doesn’t have a drive seal. The absence of this seal decreases the leakage.
- They are used to pump the condensed water.
- These pumps provide pulsation free flow.
- They have capability to transfer the high vicious fluids.
- They use to transfer the toxic fluids.
- They produce less friction.
- There is no risk of heat transfer between the pump and motor.
- They are most efficient pumps.
Disadvantages of Centrifugal Pumps
- They have priming issues.
- They don’t have self-priming capability.
- Due to high load, there are chances of coupling fall.
- This pump has overheating issues due to low supply of liquid.